Thursday, May 5, 2016

OS X Built-in tftp Server:  

You can start it with:

sudo launchctl load -F /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/tftp.plist
sudo launchctl start

You can stop it with:

sudo launchctl unload -F /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/tftp.plist

Default path:


Thursday, March 19, 2015

Performance Testing with SIPp

Performance Testing with SIPp:  


Download SIPp from

./configure --with-pcap
make install



  • ./sipp -sn uas


  • ./sipp -sn uac

Advance client options:

  • ./sipp -sd uac > uac.xml
  • ./sipp -sf uac.xml
  • ./sipp -sn uac -i -d 60000 -l 1 -m 1 -r 1 -s 1001
-i   bind local IP
-d  call duration ( 60s )
-l  limit concurrent calls
-r  call rate per second
-s username or extension is remote SIP server.

Send RTP stream:

  • ./sipp -sn uac_pcap -i -d 60000 -l 1 -m 1 -r 1 -s 1001

Monday, September 22, 2014

MySQL Replication setup in 10 minutes

  ________ ________
| | | |
| | | |
| master|>----->----->----->| slave |
| | | |
|_______| |_______|

1. configure master's /etc/mysql/my.cnf and add following line in [mysqld] section:
server-id=1 binlog-format = mixed log-bin=mysql-bin datadir=/var/lib/mysql innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit=1 sync_binlog=1
2. Restart mysqld server and create replication user that your slave will use to authenticate and connect to master:

CREATE USER replicant@<slave-server-ip>;
GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO replicant@<<slave-server-ip>> IDENTIFIED BY 'choose-secret-password';

3. Create backup file with the binlog position. It will affect performance of your existing database server, but won't lock your tables:

mysqldump -u root -p --skip-lock-tables --single-transaction --flush-logs --hex-blob --events --master-data=2 -A > ~/mysql_full_dump.sql

4. Now, find out MASTER_LOG_FILE and MASTER_LOG_POS values from "mysql_full_dump.sql" using following command, we will use them later:

head dump.sql -n80 | grep "MASTER_LOG_POS"

Above command output look like following:


5. scp mysql_full_dump.sql user@slave-server-ip:~/

6. Edit slave server's /etc/my.cnf file to add following lines:

server-id = 101 binlog-format = mixed log_bin = mysql-bin relay-log = mysql-relay-bin log-slave-updates = 1 read-only = 1

7. Restart the mysql slave daemon and then import SQL dump: 

mysql -u root -p < ~/mysql_full_dump.sql

8. Log into mysql console on slave and run following command to setup replication:

mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='master-server-ip',MASTER_USER='replicant',MASTER_PASSWORD=''slave-server-password', MASTER_LOG_FILE='Above head command output', MASTER_LOG_POS='Above head command output';

9. Run command command to start slave:


10. Check replication progress:


If all is well then you will see "Waiting for master to send event"

Notes: My mistake if you accidentally change any row or data on slave server, then revert your change and run following command:


Monday, February 11, 2013

BIGIP F5 Command Line (bigpipe Vs tmsh)

b arp show show /net arp all
b arp all delete tmsh delete /net arp all
b class DATA-GROUP mode read modify ltm data-group DATA-GROUP access-mode read-only
b class show show running-config /ltm data-group
b cluster show show /sys cluster all-properties
b config load file.ucs load /sys ucs file.ucs
b config save file.ucs save /sys ucs file.ucs
b config sync run /cm config-sync from-group/to-group DEVICEGROUPNAME
b conn show show /sys connection
b conn show all show /sys connection all-properties Show all connection table properties
b conn ss server node-ip:node-port delete delete /sys connection ss-server-addr node-ip ss-server-port node-port Delete connection table entries for node-ip node-port
b daemon list list /sys daemon-ha all-properties
b db < key name > < value > modify /sys db < key name > value < value > Modify database values
b db Platform.PowerSupplyMonitor disable tmsh modify sys db platform.powersupplymonitor value disable Disables PSU alert if only one PSU in use on Dual PSU system
b db show show running-config /sys db -hidden all-properties
b export my.config.scf save /sys scf my.config.scf v10.x only
b export my.config.scf save /sys config file my.config.scf tar-file my.config.tar v11.0+
b failover standby run /sys failover standby v11+
b fo show show /sys failover
b fo standby run /util bigpipe fo standby v10+
b ha table show /sys ha-status all-properties
b hardware baud rate modify /sys console baud-rate v10: sol10621 | v11: sol13325
b ha table show show /sys ha-status all-properties
b httpd list list /sys httpd To list httpd configuration.
b import my.config.scf load /sys scf my.config.scf v10.x only
b import my.config.scf load /sys config file my.config.scf tar-file my.config.tar v11.0+
b interface show -j show /net interface -hidden all-properties -hidden is not tab completable, but should be shown in the command output on iHealth.
b load load sys config partitions all
b merge load /sys config merge Added in v11. In v10 use bigpipe
b merge /path/to/file.txt tmsh load /sys config file /path/to/file.txt merge Merge a file into the BIG-IP configuration. Added in v11. In v10, use bigpipe
b mgmt show show running-config /sys management-ip
b monitor show show running-config /ltm monitor (?)
b nat show show /ltm nat all or list /ltm nat all-properties The two tmsh commands are required here since b nat show will list the unit preference and ARP status. Statistical information is shown via “show” while configuration information is shown via “list”.
b node all monitor show list ltm node monitor
b node show show /ltm node
b ntp servers modify sys ntp servers add { }
b packet filter all show show /net packet-fliter
b partition list auth partition no “show” command yet, list will only show written partitions
b persist tmsh show ltm persistence persist-records
b platform show /sys hardware
b pool list list /ltm pool
b pool show show /ltm pool members
b profile access all stats

b profile auth all show all show /ltm auth profile all The tmsh auth command does not display associated OCSP information shown by bigpipe.
b profile http ramcache show show /ltm profile http
b profile http stats show /ltm profile http
b profile ssl stats show /ltm profile ssl
b profile persist profile_name list all tmsh list ltm persistence profile_name all-properties
b profile tcp show show /ltm profile tcp
b profile tcp stats show /ltm profile tcp
b profile udp show show /ltm profile udp
b profile udp stats show /ltm profile udp
b profile xml show show /ltm profile xml
b reset load / sys default-config v10.x
b reset load / sys config default v11.x
b route show show /net route all
b rule < rule > show all show /ltm rule < rule >
b rule show show /ltm rule all
b rule stats reset reset-stats /ltm rule < rule >
b save save sys config partitions all
b self show show running-config /net self
b snat show /ltm snat
b snatpool show show /ltm snatpool
b software show sys software
b software desired install sys software image NAME volume HDX.Y reboot
b software desired install sys software image NAME create-volume volume HDX.Y v11.0+ : Creates volume and installs software. (Cannot create empty volumes in v11)
b software desired install sys software hotfix NAME volume HDX.Y Installs desired Hotfix to the specified Volume.
b stp show show running-config /net stp all-properties
b syslog list all list sys syslog all-properties
b syslog remote server none modify sys syslog remote-servers none
b syslog remote server test-srv host modify sys syslog remote-servers add {test-srv{host}} You can append “remote-port 517″ for example to the end of the command to specify the port
b syslog remote server test-srv local ip modify sys syslog remote-servers modify {test-srv{local-ip}} The self ip must be non-floating
b system hostname modify sys global-settings hostname NEWHOST.EXAMPLE.COM
b trunk show -j show /net trunk -hidden all
b trunk all lacp show show /net trunk detail
b unit show

b verify load load sys config verify
b version show /sys version Takes grep (but not “head” as in “b version |head”) – for example, grep on build: tmsh show sys version |grep -i build
b virtual address show show /ltm virtual-address all-properties “show” does not show the objects used by the virtual, and list does not show statistics.
b virtual all show all show /ltm virtual all-properties or list /ltm virtual all-properties “show” does not show the objects used by the virtual, and list does not show statistics.
b vlan all show all -j show /net vlan -hidden
b vlangroup all show all show /net vlan-group all
bigstart status|start|stop|restart SERVICE_NAME show|start|stop|restart sys service SERVICE_NAME
bpsh (?) load sys config from-terminal merge

Wednesday, January 30, 2013

UML (User Mode Linux)

1. Build the Kernel

# wget

# bunzip2 linux-2.6.39.tar.gz Build the Kernel 

# make ARCH=um defconfig

# make ARCH=um
2. Download Root-fs filesystem for Debian 
# wget

# bunzip2 Debian-Squeeze-AMD64-root_fs.bz2
3. Run it!!! Voila!! 
# ./vmlinux ubda=/root/Debian-Squeeze-AMD64-root_fs mem=128m umid=debian
Core dump limits :
        soft - 0
        hard - NONE
Checking that ptrace can change system call numbers...OK
Checking syscall emulation patch for ptrace...OK
Checking advanced syscall emulation patch for ptrace...OK
Checking for tmpfs mount on /dev/shm...OK
Checking PROT_EXEC mmap in /dev/shm/...OK
Checking for the skas3 patch in the host:
  - /proc/mm...not found: No such file or directory
  - PTRACE_FAULTINFO...not found
  - PTRACE_LDT...not found
UML running in SKAS0 mode
Adding 5627904 bytes to physical memory to account for exec-shield gap
Linux version 2.6.39 ( (gcc version 4.4.6 20120305 (Red Hat 4.4.6-4) (GCC) ) #1 Wed Jan 30 11:49:25 PST 2013
Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 33675
Kernel command line: ubda=/root/Debian-Squeeze-AMD64-root_fs mem=128m root=98:0
PID hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
Dentry cache hash table entries: 32768 (order: 6, 262144 bytes)
Inode-cache hash table entries: 16384 (order: 5, 131072 bytes)
Memory: 123904k available
Calibrating delay loop... 525.92 BogoMIPS (lpj=2629632)
pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
Mount-cache hash table entries: 256
Checking that host ptys support output SIGIO...Yes
Checking that host ptys support SIGIO on close...No, enabling workaround
Using 2.6 host AIO
NET: Registered protocol family 16
bio: create slab  at 0
Switching to clocksource itimer
NET: Registered protocol family 2
IP route cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
TCP established hash table entries: 8192 (order: 5, 131072 bytes)
TCP bind hash table entries: 8192 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
TCP: Hash tables configured (established 8192 bind 8192)
TCP reno registered
UDP hash table entries: 128 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
UDP-Lite hash table entries: 128 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
NET: Registered protocol family 1
mconsole (version 2) initialized on /root/.uml/debian/mconsole
Checking host MADV_REMOVE support...OK
VFS: Disk quotas dquot_6.5.2
Dquot-cache hash table entries: 512 (order 0, 4096 bytes)
msgmni has been set to 242
io scheduler noop registered
io scheduler deadline registered
io scheduler cfq registered (default)
TCP cubic registered
NET: Registered protocol family 17
Initialized stdio console driver
Console initialized on /dev/tty0
console [tty0] enabled
Initializing software serial port version 1
console [mc-1] enabled
ubda: detected capacity change from 0 to 1073741824
 ubda: unknown partition table
Switched to NOHz mode on CPU #0
EXT3-fs: barriers not enabled
kjournald starting.  Commit interval 5 seconds
EXT3-fs (ubda): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode
VFS: Mounted root (ext3 filesystem) readonly on device 98:0.
modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/2.6.39/modules.dep: No such file or directory

INIT: version 2.88 booting
Using makefile-style concurrent boot in runlevel S.
.udev/ already exists on the static /dev! ... (warning).
Starting the hotplug events dispatcher: udevd.
Synthesizing the initial hotplug events...udevd-work[272]: kernel-provided name 'hw_random' and NAME= 'hwrng' disagree, please use SYMLINK+= or change the kernel to provide the proper name

Waiting for /dev to be fully populated...done.
hostname: the specified hostname is invalid
Activating swap...done.
EXT3-fs (ubda): using internal journal
Cleaning up ifupdown....
Setting up networking....
Loading kernel modules...done.
Activating lvm and md swap...done.
Checking file systems...fsck from util-linux-ng 2.17.2
Mounting local filesystems...failed.
Activating swapfile swap...done.
Cleaning up temporary files....
Configuring network interfaces...Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client 4.1.1-P1
Copyright 2004-2010 Internet Systems Consortium.
All rights reserved.
For info, please visit

modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/2.6.39/modules.dep: No such file or directory

modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/2.6.39/modules.dep: No such file or directory

SIOCSIFADDR: No such device
modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/2.6.39/modules.dep: No such file or directory

modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/2.6.39/modules.dep: No such file or directory

eth0: ERROR while getting interface flags: No such device
modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/2.6.39/modules.dep: No such file or directory

modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/2.6.39/modules.dep: No such file or directory

eth0: ERROR while getting interface flags: No such device
Bind socket to interface: No such device
Failed to bring up eth0.
Cleaning up temporary files....
Setting kernel variables ...done.
startpar: service(s) returned failure: ... failed!
INIT: Entering runlevel: 2
Using makefile-style concurrent boot in runlevel 2.
Starting enhanced syslogd: rsyslogd.
Starting periodic command scheduler: cron.
Serial line 0 assigned device '/dev/pts/0'

Debian GNU/Linux 6.0 (none) tty0

(none) login: root
Last login: Wed Jan 30 19:57:33 UTC 2013 on tty0
Linux (none) 2.6.39 #1 Wed Jan 30 11:49:25 PST 2013 x86_64

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
root@(none):~# whoami